LF 9½ starts in

Sacred Space of the Museum. The Area of Culture

May 18
Hall #1

Track: Conferences


Increasing complexity and acceleration of social, economic and legal relations in the 21st century have not only escalated existing threats of violation of museums' space, but also brought new challenges before museums and culture in general.

Throughout the entire human history, museums have always been truly special places carrying out two main functions correlating to the duality of cultural values themselves: on the one hand, museums foster development and promotion of culture and provide people with access to it; on the other hand, they protect objects of cultural value. This duality is also expressed in the legal status of museums: they simultaneously act as public and private entities.

Museums today have to defend themselves against intruders from all directions. Primary threats remain the same: pillage and destruction of cultural valuables during armed conflicts, deliberate destruction of objects of cultural value and vandalism.

Apart from security issues, global community also faces a problem of cultural diversity and its acceptance in contemporary society. Undoubtedly, museums and cultural values are the “goodwill ambassadors” for promoting peace and cultural diversity in the modern world.

Another threat to museums concerns legal and economic issues, such as illegal publication (also in the Internet) of artworks from museums' collections, interaction of authors' unions and contemporary art museums, and concept of museums’ intellectual property.

Museums are among the main agents of international exchange of cultural valuables, and intellectual property is the basis of their financial independence; therefore, lack of proper protection of museums' intellectual property rights and their legal status directly influences their independence.

During the conference, participants will have to answer a difficult question: how to preserve the sacral space of museums and the territory of culture in the 21st century.


Mikhail Shvidkoy

Special Envoy of the President of the Russian Federation for International Cultural Cooperation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation


Born on September 5, 1948 in Kant, Kyrgyz SSR (USSR).

Education, academic degree:

In 1971, graduated from the State Institute of Theatrical Arts with a specialization in Theatre Studies.

In 1991, received a Doctor of Arts degree.

Professional experience:

In 1973–1987, correspondent, senior editor of Teatr magazine, Iskusstvo publishing house.

In 1987–1990, deputy chief editor of Teatr magazine, Iskusstvo publishing house.

In 1991–1993, general manager of the Kultura Publishing Complex, Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

In 1993–1997, deputy minister of culture of the Russian Federation.

In 1997–1998, first editor-in-chief of TV channel Kultura.

In 1998–2000, chairman of Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company.

In 2000–2004, minister of culture of the Russian Federation.

In 2004–2008, head of the Federal Agency on Culture and Cinematography.

Since 2007, co-president of the Intergovernmental Foundation for Educational, Scientific and Cultural Cooperation (IFESCCO).

Since 2008, special envoy for International Cultural Cooperation to the president of the Russian Federation, ambassador-at-large to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.

Academic adviser, professor at the Higher School of Policy in Culture and Administration in Humanities (faculty) in Moscow State University. Professor at the Russian Academy of Theatre Arts.

Artistic director of the Moscow Theatre of Musical.

Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees of the Bolshoi Theatre.

Chairman of the Foundation Board of NP Industrial Television Award Committee.

Member of several unions for creative professions (the Russian Writers' Union, Theatre Workers' Union, Journalists' Union, etc.).

Presenter of various television programmes on TV channels Kultura and TVC.

Achievements, rewards:

Decorated with the Order of Honour (1987), 4th class Order of Merit (2008) and Order of Friendship (2013).

Recipient of the State Prize of the Russian Federation (1999).

Decorated with L'Ordre du Mérite (France).

Holds state awards of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Poland, Ukraine.


Author of three books, ten films and over a thousand publications.


Mikhail Piotrovsky

Director, The State Hermitage Museum


Mikhail Borisovich Piotrovsky was born in Yerevan, Armenia, in 1944. His father, Boris Borisovich Piotrovsky, a prominent archaeologist, served as a director of the State Hermitage Museum from 1964 to 1990.

Mikhail Piotrovsky graduated with honours from the Oriental Faculty of Leningrad State University, with the degree in Arabic philology, in 1967. He also interned for Cairo University from 1965 to 1966. In 1967–1991, he worked in the Leningrad branch of the Institute for Oriental Studies, where he defended his candidate’s (1973) and doctorate (1985) dissertations. In 1991, he was invited to join the Hermitage as a deputy director for research. In July 1992, Mikhail Piotrovsky was appointed director of the State Hermitage by the state decree.

He has taken part in archaeological excavations in the Caucasus, Central Asia and Yemen. Author of more than 200 papers, including catalogues of Arabic manuscripts, publication of medieval works and ancient inscriptions, works on the spiritual and political history of Islam and Arab culture and on the archaeology of Arabia. His publications include a series of articles on Muslim mythology in the Myths of the Peoples of the World encyclopaedia, a series of articles about the Prophet Muhammad and monographs The Legend of the Himyarite King Asad al-Kamil (Moscow, 1977; Arabic translations: Sanaa, Damascus, Aden, 1978, 1979); Southern Arabia in the Early Middle Ages (Moscow, 1985); Yemen before Islam and in the First Century of the Hijra (Beirut, 1987); Quranic Tales (Moscow, 1991); Islam. An Encyclopaedic Reference Book (Moscow, 1991, co-author); The Hermitage. Collections and Collectors (St Petersburg, 1997); Earthly Art Heavenly Beauty. The Art of Islam (St Petersburg, 2000); On Islamic Art (St Petersburg, 2001), “The Hermitage” in the Great Museums of the World series (Slovo, Moscow, 2003), Historical Legends of Quran (St Petersburg, 2005), Muslim Art. Between China and Europe (St Petersburg, 2008), Looking Out of the Hermitage (St Petersburg, 2009), Description of Two Holy Places. Futuh al-Haramain (St Petersburg, 2011). Mikhail Piotrovsky is an author and a host of Moy Ermitazh TV programme (250 episodes).

He is a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and a member of its Presidium; full member of the Russian Academy of Arts, member of the Presidential Council for Art, Culture, Science and Education; professor of St Petersburg State University, where he heads the departments of Museology and Heritage Protection, and Ancient East; dean of Eastern Faculty; foreign member of the Academy of Sciences of Armenia, member of the Academy of Sciences of Tatarstan; Dr.h.c. of Kazan State University, Saratov State University and Saratov Socio-Economic Institute; chairman of the Union of Museums in Russia, president of the Worldwide Club of St Petersburgers, chairman of the Supervisory Board of the European University in St Petersburg; corresponding member of the German Archaeological Institute; editor-in-chief of the Khristianski Vostok magazine; chairman of the St Petersburg branch of Russian Orthodox Palestine Society; president of St Petersburg Intelligentsia Congress, a regional social movement; co-chairman of the Russian Cultural Heritage Promotion and Support Council at Rossotrudnichestvo. Mikhail Piotrovsky is a member of the Council of Europe’s Exhibition Advisory Council.

He has been awarded the Order of Orange-Nassau (the Netherlands, 1996), Order of Honour (Russia, 1997), Order of the Legion of Honour (France, 1998, 2004), Order of the North Star (Sweden, 1999), Order of Merit to the Italian Republic (Italy, 2000, 2004), the Armenian Apostolic Church’s Order of St Mesrop Mashtots (2000), Order of Yaroslav the Wise (Ukraine, 2003), Order of Merit (Poland, 2004), Order of Merit for the Motherland (Russia, 2004, 2009), Al-Fahr Order (Council of Muftis of Russia, 2005), Order of the Finish Lion (Finland, 2005), Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Star (Japan, 2007), Silver Medal of Amsterdam (2009), Award of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (United States, 2009), Order of the Crown (Belgium, 2011), Anatoly Koni Medal (Russian Ministry of Justice, 2013), Order of Alexander Nevsky (2014), Cross of Honour for Science and Art (Austria, 2014), Order of Merit for the Republic of Tatarstan (2014), Order of Francis Skorina (Belarus, 2014), the Order Pro Merito Melitensi (Order of Malta, 2015).

In 2003, Mikhail Piotrovsky was awarded the President’s Prize for Art and Literature.

Winner of Skyline (“Nebesnaya liniya”) public award.

In 1997, the International Astronomical Union names a minor planet Piotrovsky in honour of both Mikhail Piotrovsky and his father Boris.

On May 25th, 2011, Mikhail Piotrovsky was named Honorary Citizen of St Petersburg.

Maria Alexandrova

Associate Professor of the Department of Civil Law of the Law Faculty, St. Petersburg State University


Education, academic degree:

In 2000 Maria Alexandrova graduated cum laude from Law Faculty of Saint Petersburg State University. In 2007 she successfully defended the dissertation for the degree of Candidate of Legal Sciences at the Dissertation Committee of the SPSU. The title of the dissertation was “Civil Legal Framework of Cultural Property in the Russian Federation.” She became associate professor in 2013.

Professional experience:

As an associate professor, Maria Alexandrova reads lectures for undergraduates and MA students (General Part of Civil Law, Objects of Civil Rights and Proprietary Interest and Means of Its Protection special courses). She also conducts civil law workshops. As a guest lecturer, Ms Alexandrova has been reading for many years her original lecture course titled Legal Principles of Museology for students of SPSU Philosophy Faculty, Department of Museology and Cultural Heritage Protection. Ms Alexandrova also works together with major national education centres and regularly reads original lecture courses titled Cultural Heritage Legislation System in Russia, Legal Challenges of Archaeology in Russia, Law Enforcement Practice of Cultural Heritage Protection. St Petersburg’s experience.

Since 2001 Ms Alexandrova has been a member of the St Petersburg Legal Association and partner of Marsovo Pole law firm. She specializes in consulting and legal representation in the matters of legal regulation of cultural heritage, legal support of investment projects of cultural heritage protection.

Publications, scientific works:

Ms Alexandrova is the author of more than 15 papers, including:

1) Expert Appraisal, Evaluation and Insurance of Museum Items. Theory and Practice. Issues 1 and 2. Multi-authored monograph by N.M. Romanova, E.A. Mikhailova, N.M. Fomicheva. St Petersburg, 2011, 2012. (Chapters 1 and 4 by Maria Alexandrova.)

2) Maria Alexandrova. Legal Principles of Museology. Practice. St Petersburg, SPSU press, 2012.

3) Model Rules of European Private Law / Translation from English, edited by N.Y. Rasskazova, co-authored by V.V. Baibak, A.K. Gubaeva, I.V. Nikiforov, etc. Moscow, 2013. (Book II, Chapters 6 and 4 by Maria Alexandrova.)

4) Maria Alexandrova. Inheritance of Cultural Property // Notarialny vestnik. 2013. No 10.

5) Maria Alexandrova. Revisiting Civil Legal Regulation of Private Museum Collections and Status of Non-Governmental Museums // Peterburgsky yurist. 2014. No 3, 2015. No 1.

Guido Carducci

Former Chief of the International Standards Section, Cultural Heritage Division, UNESCO


Education, academic degree:

Two Ph.Ds. on international transactions, arbitration and litigation, Hague Academy of International Law (Diploma), four post-graduate LLMs/DEAs, French and Italian legal education.

Professional experience:

Independent arbitrator, legal expert (witness) and counsel, based in Paris and Rome, Dr. Carducci is a law professor (MCF, HDR) teaching in Paris, an attorney-at-law, a Chartered Arbitrator (FCIArb) on the ICSID and other Panels of arbitrators.

He is the former Chief of the International Standards Section at UNESCO (Paris Headquarters) and was in charge of international standard-setting and treaty-making, of the implementation of UNESCO Conventions, Recommendations and Declarations on art, cultural property and heritage, and of two intergovernmental committees, for UNESCO and its (192) Member States.

In that capacity he acted as mediator between Greece and the United Kingdom with regard to the Parthenon Marbles in the British Museum.

He combines specialized international art, cultural property and heritage legal expertise, in addition to private and public international legal expertise, academic, intergovernmental and private practice experience, to the benefit of the private and public sectors alike.

Prof. Carducci has acted in the public and private sectors upon request by corporations, international law firms, governments, international organizations, the European Union.

Prof. Carducci’s practice and services rely on these complementary features:

Private and public international legal experience: international and intergovernmental responsibilities (6 years), academia (24 years), private practice (15 years, as legal counsel and expert witness, arbitrator).

International and intergovernmental experience as Chief of the International Standards Section at UNESCO (Paris Headquarters) in charge of treaty-making and of the implementation of UNESCO Conventions, Recommendations and Declarations on art, cultural property and heritage, for the (192) Governments of Member States. He also gained the rather unique experience of mediator between Greece and the United Kingdom with regard to the Parthenon Marbles in the British Museum.

Dispute resolution experience as international arbitrator and legal expert in commercial and investment cases (in disputes up to US$1.5 billion).

Arbitrator and mediator on the ICSID and various other Panels, Chartered Arbitrator and Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators in London.

Member of three ICC Commissions in Paris: on Arbitration and ADR, Competition, Commercial Law and Practice.

Independence, absence of conflict of interests, fluent in English, French, Spanish, German, Italian (mother tongue), fair Portuguese.

Legal and cultural flexibility gained: a) working in various Civil and Common Law jurisdictions, with Governments, their legal experts and entities, and with the private legal and industry sectors; and b) studying and teaching law in various jurisdictions.

Long years of academic analysis and teaching of the law, holder of research fellowships.

Specialty and professional interests:

His independent practice in Paris and Rome as Arbitrator, Legal Expert and Counsel, at times Consultant, is in the following fields of expertise and experience:

1. in art, cultural property and heritage, contract, commercial, banking, construction, energy, investment and treaty obligations, legal matters and/or disputes;

2. in these legal systems: International Law (Public, Economic, Private/Conflict of laws), European Union, French and Italian Law.


Two monographs and thirty-five articles published, in particular: International Restitution Claims of Stolen or Illegally Exported Works of Art and Cultural Property: Private International Law, European Directive, UNESCO and UNIDROIT Conventions (LGDJ, 490 pages).

Steve Crown

Vice President - Deputy General Counsel, Microsoft


Education, academic degree:

Steve is a graduate of the University of Washington (B.A.), Oxford University (M.A), and Yale University (J.D.) He and his wife Irene have three grown children and live in Seattle.

Professional experience:

Seattle Chamber board chairman Steve Crown is Vice President and Deputy General Counsel for Human Rights in Microsoft’s Corporate, External and Legal Affairs Department. Previously Steve served as VP and DGC supporting Microsoft’s Office Division, as VP and DGC for Microsoft’s Entertainment and Devices Divisions (including launch of Xbox 360 and Windows Phone) and as the lead lawyer for Microsoft’s Windows Client business.

Before joining Microsoft in 1997 Steve practiced law with a national law firm, served as the International Business Vice President for a company that built out wireless telephone networks in Russia, and established a commercial law practice with special focus on technology transfers and international trade and investment.

Steve has been a member of the Seattle Chamber Board of Trustees since 2006. In October 2013 he co-chaired the Chamber’s Regional Leadership Conference, “Global Cities: Increasing International Engagement & Global Competitiveness.” In addition to his work with the Chamber, Steve serves as president of the Association of American Rhodes Scholars and represents Microsoft Corporation on the board of directors of the Global Network Initiative, an international multi-stakeholder organization committed to protecting and advancing freedom of expression and end user privacy on the internet.

Tatiana Chernigovskaya

Chair of the Division of Convergent Studies in Natural Sciences and Humanities - Head of Laboratory for Cognitive Studies, St. Petersburg State University


PhD in Physiology in 1977 and Doctor of Science in Physiology and in Linguistics in 1994 at I. Sechenov Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences.

Since 1972 working for I. Sechenov Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences Since 1995 - Professor and head of the Research Department of General Linguistics and the Laboratory for Cognitive Studies at St. Petersburg State University.

Teaches Psycho- and Neurolinguistics.

Member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.

Honorary member of the Semiotic Society of Finland.

President of Russian Association for Cognitive Studies (2008-2010).

Honorary Scientist of Russian Federation.

Honorary Scholar of Higher Education of Russia.

Member of the Editorial Boards of Sensory Systems, I.M. Sechenov Journal of Physiology of Russia, Journal of Philosophy (Russian Academy of Sciences).

A grantee of J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship (1998) and of Russian State Scholarship for Outstanding Scientists (1998-2001).

Invited lecturer in many leading European and North American Universities. Academy of Sciences Award for popularizing scientific knowledge (2008).

Major research interests: cerebral basis for linguistic and cognitive functions; artificial intelligence; language evolution, acquisition and pathology; analytical philosophy.

About 350 publications. Multiple participation in pop-science TV and radio programs, public lectures and movies.

Lyudmila Novosiolova

Chairman, Intellectual Property Rights Court


Education, academic degree:

1978, Moscow State University, specialization in Legal Studies. Doctor of Law, Professor.

Professional experience:

1984–1992 — Chief Consultant of Crime Prevention Directorate; Senior In-house Auditor of Economic Crime Prevention Directorate; Chief Consultant of Economic Crime Prevention and Contractual Compliance Directorate; Lead Specialist of Crime Prevention and Contractual Compliance Directorate; Deputy Head of Crime Prevention Directorate of the State Arbitration Court of the RSFSR.

1984–1992 — Arbitrator of the State Arbitration Court of the RSFSR.

1992-2013 — Judge of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation.

Legal experience: over 29 years.

Holder of the Intellectual Property Law Chair Moscow State University of Law.

Achievements and awards:

Honorary title Honoured lawyer of the Russian Federation, 2009.

2nd class Medal of Legal Merit of the Russian Federation, 2007.

Honorary certificate of the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, 2007, 2013.

Natalya Shatikhina

Advocate - Managing Partner, CLC Law Firm - Associate Professor of the Criminal Law Department of the Law Faculty, St. Petersburg State University


Education, academic degree:

In 1998 graduated cum laude from the St. Petersburg State University.

In 2004 defended the thesis “Institute of Mediation in Russian Criminal Law” (St. Petersburg State University, Law Faculty). Ph.D in Law.

Professional experience:

2001 – present time: assistant, senior lecturer, associate professor of Criminal Law Department, Saint Petersburg State University.

Specialty and professional interests:

Criminal policy, criminal law, investments advocacy, legal risk estimation, economic security issues.

Achievements and rewards:

Medal “In memory of 300 anniversary of St. Petersburg”.

Expert of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation.

Arbitrator of Common Court of Arbitration for joint stock company “Gazprom”.

Publications and scientific works:

She is the author of more than 20 scientific works.

Marina Tsyguleva

Head of Legal Department, The State Hermitage Museum



In 1985, she graduated from Faculty of Psychology, Leningrad State University, with specialization in Psychology.

In 1990, she graduated from Institute for International Training in Psychotherapy – Samway Foundation Ltd. /Boston, USA/.

In 1999, she graduated cum laude from the Legal Law Faculty of Saint Petersburg State University.

Professional experience:

Since 1998: chief legal counsel of the State Hermitage Legal Department.

Since 2006: head of the State Hermitage Legal Department.

Since 2015: member of the Research Advisory Board at the Intellectual Property Rights Court.

Task group member of cultural legislation committees of the Federal Assembly and State Duma.

In 2012, she participated in the II SPILF as a speaker at a round table called Legal Aspects of Exhibition Activities and Cultural Heritage Protection. She made a report on the challenges Russian museums face when dealing with proprietary insurance of museum items on loan for foreign exhibitions.

In 2013, she participated in the III SPILF as a speaker at a round table called Legal Aspects of Problems of Sacrilege in Art with a report Do Museum Rights Need a Special Sacrilege Law?

In 2014, she participated in the IV SPILF as a speaker at a round table called Delphic Oracle or Subject of Law? Expert Analysis of Cultural Value Items: Setting up Legal Regulation of Relevant Issues.

In 2015, she participated in the V SPILF as a speaker at a round table called Legal Barriers to Access to the World Cultural Heritage. Is There a Solution?

Achievements and awards:

  • Order of Merit, 2nd class.
  • Two-time winner of the grants from the Potanin Charity Fund for her contribution to the development of the State Hermitage Museum: in 2005, for establishing the framework for a new legal system of the State Hermitage and in 2007, for organising an effective legal service amid the increased reputational risks.
  • Letter of gratitude from the minister of justice of the Russian Federation for her contribution to strengthening international cooperation in justice.
  • Letter of gratitude from the Saint Petersburg City Administration, Central Region (2014).
  • Certificate of Merit of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation (2012).
  • Best Legal Department in Art category (2015).

*This schedule may be subject to change